Finishing work

Finishing work

Before wallpapering

Wallpaper is glued to a previously plastered surface or drywall. Never experiment with pasting new wallpapers over old ones. In the case of a painted surface, it is enough to simply wash the walls. A porous or unpainted surface must be treated with wallpaper glue; without such a procedure, it will be difficult for the wallpaper panel to move along the wall, which will affect the alignment of the pattern. Before directly applying the wallpaper, the glue on the wall must dry.

Before gluing the wallpaper, the walls must be leveled and primed. You can read about how to quickly remove old wallpaper here..

Sanding, priming and filler

Room layout

It is recommended to start gluing from the corner – this helps to hide pattern defects in case of poor alignment of panels that are glued first and last. If the room has some kind of architecture (arch or fireplace), and the wallpaper has a rather large pattern, then the first panel must be glued with a pattern along the axis of the architectural element. Other panels are glued on both sides of the original. Having decided on the starting point, in the future you can use the roll in the form of a template for marking the position of the panels on the surface. Thus, you can determine the location of the joints in inconvenient places and, if necessary, change the starting point..

Preparation for pasting wallpaper

If you have not experienced a similar procedure before and «do not want to break the wood», then it is better to use wallpaper with an arbitrary pattern. This will help you focus on the technique and not on the alignment of the drawing. By the way, for beginners, it is better to use a wallpaper with a ready-made glue layer..

The work begins with determining the direction of the pattern. It can be seen on the roll by the corresponding arrow, which indicates the flow.

Cutting wallpaper with a pattern

To begin with, let’s figure out the nature of the pattern on the wallpaper, because the pattern can be either symmetrical or asymmetrical with respect to the axis of the canvas. This also matters when calculating the number of rolls. The length between the repeating wallpaper pattern is called the rapport or simply the pattern pitch. The step length can vary from 5 to 30 cm.The longer the step length, the more difficult it is to adjust the pattern and, accordingly, there will be more waste.

It is necessary to measure the height of the wall and add 10-15 cm from each end to fit, then unfold the roll and arrange the panels. If the workplace has the required dimensions, then it can be used as a template. First you need to cut off the panel with a small gap of 50 mm. The drawing on the second canvas must be combined with the drawing on the first one. At the workplace, you can note the length of the panels and the placement of the pattern for odd and even panels. Horizontally identical wallpaper with a pattern on opposite edges has matching halves of patterns. Different horizontally wallpaper on opposite edges of the matching halves of the patterns are often shifted by half a step from the pattern (see the picture).

Combining a wallpaper pattern

How to choose wallpaper glue

Successful gluing largely depends on the correct selection and application of the adhesive. First of all, when buying wallpaper, always pay attention to the manufacturer’s instructions for using the adhesive. If there are none, then you can ask in the special. store or seller. It is imperative to determine whether or not a fungicide-added adhesive should be used. Such an adhesive mixture prevents the formation of mold, therefore it is used when gluing washable or vinyl (waterproof) wallpaper. The package indicates the type of glue and material consumption for the number of wallpaper.

Organic and synthetic adhesive mixtures are available in both solid and liquid form. The solution is prepared by slowly pouring out the contents of the bag and mixing it with the required amount of water. To prevent various lumps, the solution must be continuously stirred, and then allowed to thicken and settle (the required time is indicated by the manufacturer). The glue is able to store its properties for about one week, but at the same time it must be kept in an airtight container..

Liquid glue is immediately poured into the container and used in work.

Glue application

First, you need to spread the panels on the working surface with the pattern down. Then we apply glue to the middle of the panel and smear it on the sides with a brush. Pay special attention to the edges. If glue gets on the floor, it is better to wipe it off immediately with a damp cloth. Have you smeared the canvases? Great, now we fold them with glue inward. This procedure will facilitate transfer to the wall and prevent drying out. If necessary, you can fold the panel again..

Wallpaper stripes

All wallpapers, except for very thin ones, must be left for impregnation: 2-3 minutes for less dense ones, and up to 15 for more dense ones. The duration is usually written in the instructions on the package. Wallpaper impregnated with glue will prevent the appearance of bubbles and soften them, which simplifies the immediate process of pasting. Therefore, it is better to put aside the cloth smeared with glue and start processing another. When working, it is necessary to be careful not to get glue on the front part and the workplace on which the next roll will lie. To do this, you can put several layers of paper on the desktop and remove them as the wallpaper is processed. By the way, we answer your future question: «no, the newspaper cannot be used, otherwise the newspaper paint will add its part of the decor to your wallpaper».

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Finishing work

Wall decoration in the bathroom: beautiful design options in the photo

Everyone dreams of a beautiful and cozy bathroom where you can relax and unwind, but creating a successful design is not so easy. For a successful interior design, it is best to contact the designers. Wall decoration is the main factor influencing the design of the bathroom and its perception, which is why you need to carefully approach the choice of materials that will be used.

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PVC panels

Installation of such material is very simple, so you can do it yourself. In order to cover the walls with PVC panels, you need to clean the walls, and then assemble the frame for paneling, it is best to build it from wooden blocks with a special impregnation. Alternatively, metal and plastic profiles can be used.

After all the preparatory processes, you can start sheathing the frame with panels, you need to fix it with screws, and dock with the built-in locks. The side of the bathtub and corners are treated with a sealant, and plastic corners will help to hide defects. Before starting the installation of the wall, it is best to treat it with special impregnations so that fungi do not form under the panels..

bathroom decoration with PVC panels

Tile

Tile is currently the most popular material in the bathroom, because it is very practical, resistant to moisture and temperature extremes. In addition, the tile is very convenient, as it is easy to clean, which means that cleaning will be simple. The tile has a very original design, and the choice of pattern is simply amazing, which will allow everyone to create a unique bathroom.

It is better to invite professionals for the installation of plates, however, you can familiarize yourself with the stages of work in order to be able to control their activities:

  • Leveling and cleaning the walls, then they will need to be primed.
  • Markup.
  • Styling. During work, special glue is used, which is diluted with water in the proportions indicated in the instructions.
  • Grout. The solution is mixed, with the help of which the seams are covered with a rubber spatula, and all excess is removed with a rag.

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Waterproof paint

Painting bathroom walls with waterproof paints is an interesting and affordable option. When choosing a paint, you need to take into account its moisture-resistant characteristics in order to avoid disastrous consequences..

It is best to use latex paints as they are resistant to moisture, grease and dirt. In order for the paint to lay down as correctly as possible, you need to prepare the walls.

Preparation stages:

  • Cleaning walls from previous coatings, degreasing the base.
  • All irregularities must be removed, for this it is best to use plaster or putty (you need to use special types of materials with latex or acrylic). The wall should be perfectly flat, for this you can use sandpaper, carefully processing the surface of the wall with it.
  • Painting the wall with paint with a brush or roller.

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Original options

In addition to the standard options, there are also original ideas that are increasingly used in order to create a unique design. Among the options below, everyone will find one that they like.

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Linoleum

One of the most unusual and original options for decorating the walls of the bathroom will be linoleum. This option is not very popular, but it is affordable, and the installation is very simple, because everyone can handle it.

For wall decoration, you can use both ordinary floor linoleum and special models that are designed for walls. Assembly glue is used for the sticker, but first you need to prime the base. By welding (hot or cold), the seams must be sealed, problem areas are treated with silicone sealant. The main disadvantage lies in the small choice of colors, it is better not to use dark colors, as they will visually reduce the dimensions of the room.

linoleum on the walls

Mosaic

The use of mosaics for decorating the walls of the bathroom is an original and interesting option, which is the most beautiful and expensive at the same time. With the help of mosaics, you can create a truly unique interior. Mosaics can be made of glass or stone, as well as ceramics or other materials..

Now in stores they sell ready-made mosaics that are glued onto a polymer net. It is enough to calculate the amount of materials that is needed, purchase and carry out the installation with your own hands according to the same principle as the tile.

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Decorative plaster

The technical characteristics of modern decorative plaster make it possible to use it for decorating bathroom walls. The plaster has an acrylic base and special additives, which make it moisture resistant, due to which it will not lose color, it will be able to serve for many years.

Advantages of using decorative plaster:

  • Vapor permeability.
  • Wide range of.
  • Prostate in care and maintenance.

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Additional elements of wall decor in the bathroom

With the help of stickers, you can make the walls more interesting and original, focus on the drawing that complements the design of the bathroom. You can buy ready-made stickers or make them by ordering a print in the printing industry, thereby placing the desired photo or picture on the wall.

You can decorate the tiles with natural small shells, which will create a pleasant atmosphere and a relaxing design. They need to be glued at the corners of the tile or in the middle of it to create a seascape. For the ultimate experience, seashells are combined with sea stones.

Painting a bathroom with drawings is another original option for decorating walls. If someone you know has artistic talents, then you can ask him to paint the walls in an original way, to make them thus unique. It is best to paint the walls painted with paint. A drawing can be created not only with a brush, but also by gluing rhinestones, stones.

In general, it is worth noting that the choice of material directly depends on the preferences of the owner, as well as the style direction of the apartment. Best of all, strives for the unity of style, but this does not prevent in any way from creating a unique design of the bathroom, using original ideas or materials for decoration. What the bathroom will be like is a question that everyone must answer for himself, after which he will be able to start decorating the walls.

bathroom finishing with porcelain stoneware  bathroom decoration with wallpaper wood trim bathroom decoration in light colors  light finish modern design in blue tones modern bathroom design combination of tiles and plastic panels in the bathroom combination of brown and white tiles in the bathroom stylish bathroom finishes cozy bathroom cozy bathroom decoration with tiles  bright accents for finishing the bathroomcombination of tiles and mosaics in the bathroom

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Finishing work

Aligning the walls of the room

Almost always, renovation in a new apartment begins with an event such as leveling the walls. Unfortunately, the geometry of their surface in most cases is far from ideal and in order to bring the apartment into the appropriate form, it is necessary first of all to resolve this issue..

There is nothing complicated in the technology of leveling the wall. To do this, you must have a minimum of experience in construction and renovation, and the appropriate tools and materials. There are several methods for eliminating this problem, the first is plastering and the second is sheathing the wall surface with plasterboard sheets. Each of the methods has both advantages and disadvantages, so it is worth considering them in more detail..

Plastering walls

The main disadvantages of plaster are the laboriousness of the process, the mandatory presence of skills in this area, a significant amount of dust and dirt that will arise during the performance of work. Advantages – a wall with a perfectly smooth surface, which will require repair after a sufficiently long time.

What you need to work? The first task is to clean the walls from the layer of old plaster, if any. Then the surface is washed from dust and dirt adhering to it and covered with a primer. This process is of great importance because the better the preparatory work is performed, the easier the subsequent process will be..

Tools and materials:

  • Construction mixer
  • Tanks for mixing plaster mix
  • Lighthouses
  • Rule from 1.5 to 2m
  • Plumb line
  • Building level
  • Plaster mix in the required amount

Calculating the right amount of the mixture is quite simple. Based on average data, in order to apply a layer 2 cm thick on 1 square meter of surface, you will need about 16 kg of mortar. But it is worth buying material with a margin, especially if there are significant flaws. In this case, the thickness of the plaster can reach 4-5 cm..

Use of beacons

First of all, the threads are stretched horizontally along the wall, approximately at a distance of 0.5 to 3 cm from the surface, it depends on the existing curvatures. Fastening of threads is made on nails hammered in the corners.

Then you can place beacons. They are easy to install. To do this, the beacon must be slipped under the threads and fixed vertically with putty or dowels.

Lighthouses are installed at a distance of at least a meter and a half from each other. The less often these elements are installed, the easier it will be to apply the putty. But if they are too rarely located, then the process can be quite difficult, because the application of the mixture between the beacons is one technological operation and is performed in one go.

Putty work

The pre-prepared mixture is applied to the surface using a special scoop, and then it is leveled with a rule. Plastering is carried out in stages, between the installed beacons.

After applying a layer of plaster, let it dry. It usually takes 2 to 4 days depending on the room temperature.

When drying, it is undesirable to open windows in order to avoid drafts. It is also not recommended to carry out work in the winter in a room that is not heated. Recommended temperature for plastering walls – +10 degrees Celsius and above.

Leveling the base wall surface with plasterboard sheets

Working with drywall is less difficult than plastering. The main advantages of this approach are low labor intensity of the process, minimum of dirt and dust, low weight of materials. Disadvantage – due to the need to install the frame and a certain thickness of gypsum plasterboards, the total area of ​​the room decreases. So this method is not recommended for use in small rooms..

Materials and tools

  • Building rule
  • Screwdriver
  • Plasterboard sheets
  • Self-tapping screws
  • Carrying profile (60mm)
  • Guide profile (27mm)

Preparatory workFirst you need to make a frame from profiles. For this, a preliminary marking is made on the ceiling and floor, along which the profiles will be placed. It is necessary to carefully check the location of the marking lines relative to each other. For this, it is optimal to use a plumb line. After marking and checking, the guide profiles are fastened to the surface using self-tapping screws.

Every 40-50 cm in the wall along a vertical line, again according to preliminary markings, holes are drilled that are necessary for installing dowels. Next, a supporting profile is installed, which is fastened to the dowels, as well as to the upper and lower guide profiles.

Before fixing the elements of the frame, it is necessary to check its geometry and the correct location of all its components relative to each other..

The space between the profiles can be used to insulate the room. It is filled with mineral wool and, in addition to obtaining a flat surface, the heat-saving characteristics of the room can be significantly improved.

Plasterboard installation. Before proceeding with this operation, it is necessary to make marks on the floor by which the location of the profiles will be determined. A drywall sheet is applied to the profile and mounted on it using self-tapping screws. Fasteners must be at least 15 cm apart. When performing installation work, it is worth making sure that the screw head is on the same plane with the sheet surface or not more than 0.5 mm below the surface..

Finishing works. After installing the drywall sheets, the joints are putty. To do this, you need to use a special gypsum-based building mixture. It is convenient for performing this event due to the increased level of plasticity..

To prevent cracks from appearing at the joints, the mesh is pre-glued, and a layer of putty is applied to it.

After that, you can wallpaper the walls or prepare them for painting..

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Finishing work

Decorating the apartment with decorative stone

The use of stone in interior design is no longer a gimmick. This finish pleased most designers who highly appreciated the advantages of natural material. Let’s see how to fit a decorative stone finish into the interior, in what styles it will look the most harmonious, why do designers love it so much and not only.

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Advantages of decorative stone

As a decoration for interiors, this material is one of the most practical, due to its properties:

  • hygiene and environmental friendliness – eliminates the possibility of mold and any fungus, therefore, decorative stone trim is perfect for a bathroom and kitchen;
  • strength and durability;

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  • unpretentiousness in cleaning – it is enough to periodically wipe the decorative stone with a soft brush or rag, it is better to avoid rigid metal mesh and active abrasive agents;
  • decorative stone is a non-combustible material, therefore it is fire resistant. And this is the key point regarding its choice for facing fireplaces;

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  • goes well with many materials – from parquet boards and wood to glass and metallic gloss;
  • variety of assortment – there are both glossy and matte stone surfaces, and in texture – smooth or rough;
  • the richness of patterns and shades allows you to decorate the interior so that it is original and absolutely unique;

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  • modern decorative stone is a completely lightweight material that can destroy or deform walls.

It is obvious that the use of decorative stone in interior decoration has undeniable advantages, thanks to which this natural material is a welcome guest in almost any room..

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Basic principles of interior decoration with decorative stone

The main principle of decorating an apartment with stone is a sense of proportion. If “take a walk” and decorate all walls from floor to ceiling with stone, the effect will be exactly the opposite of what you want: instead of warmth and a cozy home environment, you will get a crypt or a cave, staying in which will bring depression and coldness. Therefore, using decorative stone in the design of rooms, you need to correctly assess the height of the ceilings, the area of ​​the room, its stylistic direction, the level of natural light, which side the windows face and whether they are present at all.

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Most city apartments do not differ in high ceilings and spacious large rooms, therefore, decorative stone is most often found in the decoration of private houses and country cottages. If, nevertheless, you really want to bring an accent of monumentality and at the same time more comfort to the design of an apartment, with the right approach, the stone can be used here as well. Let’s consider some examples of its use in a standard city apartment:

  • part of a wall trimmed with stone is a great way of zoning a room. Especially if the layout of the apartment is made in the form of a studio, thus you can visually divide the kitchen space and the living room, as well as the bedroom and the study;

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  • in a two-level apartment, it will be good to use stone masonry near the stairs;

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  • an interesting idea – to decorate one of the walls of the hall or hallway with natural material, or to lay out interior arches with decorative stone;

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  • stone and all natural materials look very organic in the places where the equipment is located. And in order to reduce the stress on the eyes and ears, it is better to choose for the stone cladding exactly those areas where the computer or TV is working;

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  • decorative stone looks great in the kitchen, replacing the traditional tile backsplash.

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We can endlessly talk about such examples of the use of this luxurious natural material. But first of all, it is important to understand that in a small apartment with insufficient amount of natural light, you need to limit the use of decorative stone. In this case, it is better to choose a light type with a porous structure..

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Decorative stone and interior style

Few materials fit into the interior as harmoniously as decorative stone. He will be a welcome guest even in the strictest, laconic styles like techno or hi-tech..

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Minimalism

This style of interior decoration is completely devoid of details and decor, so the stone accent here will become a kind of zest that attracts attention. In minimalism, walls completely covered with stone are extremely rare, but its use as a zoning of a room is very welcome. Perhaps the deliberate texture of the masonry will contradict the atmosphere of minimalism, but the plain semi-glossy smooth slabs will ideally complement the laconic interior. It can be dark gray shungite, beige sandstone, pink shale with a gray tint..

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Loft

One of those styles in which, without a doubt, decorative stone fully manifests itself in all its glory. And although the original loft rooms provide for traditional brickwork, you can safely use stone finishes of brown limestone or grayish breccia instead..

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Classics and neoclassics

In these directions, the stone is found in all its diversity – from uneven and textured marble to its perfectly smooth counterparts..

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Castle style

Looks great in the interior of large country houses and cottages, but definitely not in city apartments. In combination with metal forged elements (candelabra, stairs, fireplace grates), an abundance of wood (ceiling beams, furniture, floors), the stone finish looks very noble. It should consist of stones of different sizes, between which the grout stands out. Light dolomite and warm sandstone will look cozy and organic.

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High tech

Despite its urbanism, high-tech welcomes wall cladding with decorative stone, because it is he who is able to emphasize the spectacular neighborhood of glass and metal.

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Decorative stone is a natural material that opens up endless possibilities for creative imagination. Aesthetic appearance, reliability and practicality, hygiene and environmental friendliness – all this allows the use of stone cladding in its entirety.

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Finishing work

Wallpaper combinations in room design

In fact, in almost any residential or working volume, the walls have the largest area. Due to this topological property, every room needs a particularly careful choice of wall decoration. To achieve a unique and impressive result, there is no need for a grueling search for expensive and limited edition wallpapers. After all, there is the possibility of a huge number of combinations of quite ordinary roll wall coverings. Nowadays it is becoming fashionable to compile canvases of various patterns, textures and colors on the walls..

Wallpaper combination

The laws of visual perception and the practice of design solutions make it possible to quite clearly define several types of such combinations..

Vertical delimitation

With this method, rolls with different colors and types of patterns are used to decorate the walls, but the thickness of the sheet and its textured properties should be the same for all fragments. The most represented here are compounds of different saturation performances of the same color (monochrome version). Or, on the contrary, the construction of a wall image is based on the alternation of sharply differing colors (contrasting method). In addition, different types of the pattern itself are combined. In one combination or another, purely geometric and floristic motives can coexist..

Wallpaper color combination Photo wallpaper color combination Photo borders Photo wallpaper borders

The eye can definitely be attracted by the alternation of contrasting stripes with large and clearly traced flowers. This is how the walls are pasted over if they intend to give the interior the style of a kind of nostalgic retro. Vertical division, among other things, gives a good chance of marking individual zones in the room, which can have various utilitarian purposes..

 Horizontal differentiation

This technique is based on the alternation of horizontal stripes and lines. So you can profitably set off the positive properties of all other design, in whatever style it is created. Here, tint or contrasting alternations of different colors are also allowed. The width of the stripes here must be kept in direct proportional dependence on the height of the ceiling. In this case, mixing of different textures of the finishing material will also be quite appropriate. Vinyl wallpaper, for example, can be separated by stained areas and cork cover.

Horizontal photo differentiation Horizontal combination of wallpaper Wallpaper combination options Wallpaper combination photo

The combination of horizontal stripes from the same vinyl and textiles or silkscreen is well perceived. The depth of the relief at first gives the wall the effect of artistic plaster. The latter have a diluting soft and fine texture on the surface. The complex forms a kind of imitation of finishing with natural materials. Adding liquid wallpaper to this variation range further expands the range of wall design possibilities.

 Inserts and patchwork

To embody such a design solution, the wall must already be pasted over. To form the inserts, thick and dense pieces of wallpaper on a non-woven base are used. The shape and size of such inclusions are taken in accordance with the chosen general style of design and the geometry of the room. The classic decoration assumes regular rectangular details made of natural fabrics, surrounded by a frame made of thin strips of some third color. Neoclassical and modern trends noticeably expand the sector of selectable shapes and configurations..

Photo wallpaper inserts

Pasting with wallpaper patches

Probably the most time-consuming is to paste over the wall exclusively with wallpaper patches, which are carefully fitted at the joints and create the impression of a single motley canvas. Nevertheless, this technique is quite capable of satisfying the most liberated imagination and whimsical taste. With due diligence and accuracy, even any macro image can be recreated from individual pieces, be it a landscape, a portrait, a copy of a painting or a recognizable architectural monument..

Pasting with wallpaper patches

In any case, the combination of various wallpaper fragments in one way or another can transform the most ordinary wall into an eye-catching creative work..

Wallpaper combination photo Wallpaper combinations Photo wallpaper combinations Examples of wallpaper combinations Dark wallpaper Beautiful wallpaper Combination of different wallpapers Combination examples Wallpaper borders

The nuances of gluing with horizontal wall decoration

Choosing a horizontal method of wall decoration, one must be prepared for some of the difficulties of its implementation. Here you cannot violate a certain gluing algorithm. The strips must be glued from top to bottom. The lower canvas should slide over the upper one with some overlap, which cannot be immediately coated with an adhesive. Adjacent stripes are cut clearly butt and glued along this line only after the main glued sheet has dried. If these principles are not adhered to, then due to unequal narrowing during drying of fragments from different materials, gaps may appear between them..

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Finishing work

I want to make a renovation! Bathroom: aligning the walls (part 3)

Our bathroom has a high-quality, even, possibly even warm floor. It’s time to line up the walls. Why should we talk about this at all? The fact is that even walls in houses built in the last century are a rare occurrence. And if you are a happy owner of an apartment in a new building, you may face another problem. Often these apartments are sold without finishing work. And then the owner’s concern will be leveling the brick wall to such a state that will allow you to put tiles on it..

Is it so important, smooth walls? The bathroom is more important than any other. Tile, a traditional bathroom decoration material, should form straight seam lines when laid. If the base for the tiles is not even, this will become very noticeable at the seams. Smooth walls give the room a strict, neat look and allow any design ideas to come true.

How can you align the walls in the bathroom?

This article will go into three ways in detail. Each of them has its own advantages and disadvantages. Knowing about them, the owner can decide which technology is most suitable for a given room..

Regardless of the method chosen, it must be remembered that the bathroom is a very humid room. Only moisture-repellent materials are suitable for leveling the walls..

Leveling walls with plaster

Plaster is the classic method of leveling walls. A couple of decades ago, this method was the only one. And today, many owners prefer it. For plastering rooms with high humidity, a cement-sand mixture is used. You can buy it ready-made, or you can do it yourself. Recommended ratio of cement to sand for wall plastering 1: 4.

What is needed for work besides the cement-sand mixture?

We expose beacons

Walls cleaned to bricks or concrete slabs must be carefully primed. Is the primer dry? Beacons can now be installed. These are special thin metal strips that are used as guides for leveling the plaster. They are reinforced at a distance of 100-120 cm from each other and 20-30 cm from the corners of the room. Each lighthouse is exposed strictly vertically, in level.

It is convenient to attach the plank to the wall using alabaster mixed with water. The mixture should not be thick, but not liquid either. You do not need to breed a lot of alabaster, it hardens very quickly. We strengthen the lighthouse from above and from below pointwise. We quickly check the vertical using a level or plumb line. After making sure that the guide is aligned correctly, fill the space between the wall and the lighthouse with a batch of alabaster.

 Important! All guides of one wall must lie in the same plane.

How to apply a cement-sand mixture?

This job requires certain skills. Usually, the cement-sand mixture is thrown onto the wall using a special plastering bucket. It’s not easy, it takes practice. On small bathroom walls, you can do without a ladle. The plaster mortar can be spread on the wall with a trowel (if the layer is small) or with a half-trowel (if the layer is 1.5-2 cm thick). A thicker layer must be applied in two times.

No matter how the mixture is applied to the walls, the space between the beacons should be mostly filled. The plaster should slightly protrude beyond the level of the plane of the beacons. We remove the excess solution with the rule, pressing it to the beacons. We carry out the rule from the bottom up, while making short movements to the left and to the right. The excess solution is, as it were, cut off. It turns out the basis of the plane we need.

Of course, in order to manipulate the cement mix in this way, you need to make it soft, pliable, like melted butter. It depends on the amount of water in the solution. Too much water – the mixture runs down the wall. And if too little, the rule pulls out pieces of new plaster..

So we consistently fill the spaces between the beacons. For further work, you need to allow the solution to set, harden, but not dry.

The wall becomes flat

The result is a wall with a flat base. But now the gaps have to be filled. And there are many of them. Cracks, cavities, shells. This time we will make a slightly more liquid solution. It is convenient to apply it with a polisher. It is necessary to ensure that the plane of the wall does not build up, but only the defects are leveled. After applying the leveling layer, you also need to pause. Let the solution harden.

The wall is getting prettier before our eyes. It remains only to make it smooth. To do this, you need a plastering foam float. It is necessary to moisten a part of the wall with water and rub it with a float, where necessary using a small amount of liquid solution. Don’t rub very hard. The fresh plaster layer may be damaged. After the plaster dries, it is primed. The wall is ready for finishing.

Plasterboard wall alignment

Modern technology for leveling walls using drywall can well be used in the bathroom. For wet rooms, moisture resistant drywall is produced. It is mounted on walls in one of two ways: on a frame or using glue.

How to make a frame for drywall

A wooden frame cannot be used in the bathroom. For the frame, galvanized profiles are needed. So what is needed for this job?

Measured and cut guide profiles are fixed to the ceiling and floor. This can be done using a screwdriver and quick fixing screws. The lower profile is attached strictly under the upper one. The same profiles are mounted to the walls perpendicular to the one being repaired. The profiles on the walls are set strictly vertically. The frame will be fixed to the resulting rectangle.

Next, you need to cut the CD profile. Its length is equal to the height of the room. To stiffen the inner corners, the first profile is placed so that it forms an angle with the first profile of the adjacent wall. Further, there should be a distance of 60 cm between the midpoints of the profiles. This is important because the width of the drywall is 120 cm, and the sheets should be joined in the middle of the profile. At the junction points, CD and UD profiles are fastened together with a self-tapping screw.

For structural rigidity, each rack profile must be attached to the wall in several places. For this, direct suspensions are used. The design of the suspensions allows them to be strengthened both before the installation of the racks, and after, under them. Suspension brackets are fastened to the wall with dowels and screws, and to the profile – with fleas.

In places of horizontal joining of drywall sheets, the frame should have transverse sections of the profile. The crossbeams are attached to the uprights using sibling connectors. The people called them «crabs». Parts are fastened «flea beetles».

Important! Consider in advance where in the bathroom there will be hanging furniture, a heated towel rail and a mirror. To fix them securely, a transverse profile is required at the attachment point..

Strengthening drywall

Before fixing drywall, you need to lay electrical wires for sockets and lighting.

Plasterboard sheets are fastened with black self-tapping screws 25 mm long. Their cap should be recessed 2-3 mm deep into the sheet. The extreme lines of the drywall and its middle are fixed. Self-tapping screws are screwed in at a distance of 15 cm from each other.

To cut off a piece of drywall sheet, you need a construction knife and a long ruler. A piece of profile can be used instead of a ruler. On the label, using a ruler, we make an incision along the front side of the drywall sheet. The sheet breaks easily along the notch towards the wrong side. With a knife from the seamy side, cut the second layer of cardboard.

After strengthening all the parts, you need to putty the place where the sheets are joined (preferably gluing the reinforcing mesh). The recessed caps of the self-tapping screws are also closed with putty. The finished plasterboard wall must be primed.

Or you can do it without a frame

Plasterboard on walls with slight irregularities can simply be glued. To do this, use a special adhesive mixture. The mixture is mixed with water with a construction mixer according to the manufacturer’s instructions. There is no need to start a lot of glue at once. The mixture hardens rather quickly. Don’t forget to prime the wall. For this technology, this is the key to success. Wiring must be done in advance.

The glue is applied pointwise, every 20-25 cm along the entire seamy part of the sheet. This is done with a trowel or spatula. No need to save. After the drywall is pressed against the wall, each «point» should be 10-15 cm in diameter. It is especially important to grease the edges well. The glued sheet is checked with a level and rule. The plane must be flat. This is regulated by the thickness of the glue layer. That is why drywall is mounted this way only on relatively flat walls..

After installation – putty and primer. If everything is done carefully, the differences between frame and frameless installation are not visible..

What’s next?

The time comes for finishing work. The installation of water and sewerage pipes and plumbing equipment is still to be done. For information on how to continue renovating the bathroom, read the series of articles under the general title «I want to make repairs. Bathroom».

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Finishing work

Plasterboard wall cladding with frame method

Having their own home, almost everyone is faced with the problem of aligning the walls. Someone wants to change the layout by installing additional walls, while someone wants to make arched doorways. All these desires can be realized using frame installation of gypsum plasterboards.

Methods for installing gypsum plasterboards

Drywall is an easy-to-work material: it is easy to install, easy to cut, and flexible when bent. Depending on the evenness of the existing walls, you can glue drywall to the wall or mount it on a frame. Glue plasterboard plates on the plane of that wall, the slope from the level of which does not exceed 1 cm by 1.5-2 m.

The frame installation method is used when leveling very curved walls. Moreover, the curvature of the walls can be both horizontally and vertically. You can create a frame from wood or metal. Thanks to the use of the frame, arched openings, niches, slopes of windows and doors are arranged. It is possible to build different shelves and mezzanines made of plasterboard in the house. There are a lot of options. It all depends on the skill of the chosen master and on the design habits of the owner of the apartment.

The choice of material for the frame

A drywall frame is used when you need to level the walls. This method is good in that it is possible to hide the wiring and communications behind the frame. The frame makes it possible to insulate the room using mineral wool or foam. Under the drywall, a frame is built from wooden slats or metal profiles.

Wooden slats must be treated with a special anti-fungal compound. The timber frame is used in dry rooms. The slats must be well dried and free from knots. This prevents the entire structure from distorting during drying. The presence of knots leads to breakage. The rail to be installed must be complete along its entire length. The best choice is a 3/5 cm rail. Moreover, the 5 cm side is the front side. Drywall is attached to it. In the frame version, it is very important to build the frame correctly. After all, plasterboard plates are attached to it. For the metal frame, special factory-made profiles are used. You should choose a harder profile. They are available in 2, 2.5 and 3 meters in length. Its size is 3/6 cm.

Frame installation

Plasterboard wall cladding with frame method option 3 Plasterboard wall cladding with frame method option 2 Plasterboard wall cladding with frame method

Basically, the installation of wood and metal frames is the same. The initial stage in the device of the wireframe mesh on the wall is the marking of the processed plane. Taking into account the dimensions of the drywall in width (1.2 m), the wall is marked into even 0.6 m sections. The first horizontal line is drawn in the corner of the wall. All subsequent lines are marked from it at the specified distance. The line is drawn from ceiling to floor. Marks are made along the lines using a level to fix the suspensions. The distance between the hangers is 0.5 m. The profile guides (rails) are attached to these hangers with self-tapping screws for metal or wood. The hangers themselves are attached to the wall. If the initial wall is wooden, use wood screws. In the case of a concrete or brick wall, dowels are used. A very important point is the fastening of the hangers to the wall. Whatever one may say, the wall of the house is the base to which the entire frame structure is attached. Therefore, you should fix the suspensions with high quality. If the screw or dowel does not hold in the wall, you need to move it slightly up or down. In no case should the suspension be shifted to the right – to the left, this will cause the profile installation level to be lost..

In each of the corners, they are installed along the profile. It is required to install by level. It’s better for two people to mount a profile. After all, it is very difficult for one person to fix the profile, while adhering to evenness. For an even installation is required in two planes: relative to the processed and adjacent walls. The profile is attached to the suspensions only to the lateral (narrow) plane of the profile itself.

Above and below, the nylon thread is thoroughly pulled. It should be pulled in such a way that it runs along the wall, touching the two installed profiles. All the remaining profiles are mounted along these threads. When fixing them to suspensions, it is unnecessary to forget about maintaining the evenness of two planes. It happens that the profile (rail) is installed correctly along the threads, but the middle part of the profile has a deflection inward or outward – this is a curved wall.

Securing drywall sheets

It is also important to remember that the plasterboard is flat with right angles. If the profile is shifted to the left or right, then the installation of drywall may become more difficult. After all, each sheet of drywall captures half of the plane (3 cm) on the profile. It is worth rejecting one sheet from the level and all the others will follow. In addition, the possibility of normal fixing of drywall sheets is lost. Drywall is a brittle material, therefore, a 3 cm grip is made for fixing. Less grip leads to breakage of a piece of the sheet, subsequently the sheet will come off.

If the height of the plasterboard sheet is not enough to cover the plane of the wall, it is necessary to use transverse pieces of profiles. They are fixed between existing horizontal profiles. For example: a drywall sheet is 3 m high and a wall is 4 m high. Drywall is fixed from below, on it a piece of sheet of the missing height. At the junction of these pieces, a transverse profile is screwed on. Its length should correspond to the distance between the profiles, plus 6 cm (3 cm of grip for each profile). The vertical profile is installed so that both sheets of drywall grab it evenly.

It is important when installing sheets to install them in a checkerboard pattern. If the first sheet is fixed from the floor, then a meter piece is fixed next to it. A whole sheet of drywall is installed on it. The drywall is fixed with self-tapping screws 25 mm long. A screwdriver with a special nozzle is used to tighten the self-tapping screws. This nozzle has a limiter so as not to fall through the drywall. If someone decided to do the installation of drywall with their own hands, then they should not be afraid of this process. There is nothing complicated about it.

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Finishing work

How to waterproof your bathroom?

Waterproofing is the application of materials that do not allow water to pass through the floor and walls. This type of repair is done at the locations of the bathrooms, to prevent the occurrence of fungi, mold and others. «joys» damp room. The expediency of waterproofing does not require discussion, because if it is not performed, then evaporation and condensation eventually penetrate even under the tiles laid in the bathroom, causing all of the above consequences, negative both for the appearance of the room and for the health of their owners. A separate point worth noting is the increase in the service life of finishing materials in the bathroom, as well as minimizing possible misunderstandings with neighbors due to an unclosed tap, a burst pipe or other accidents …

Where waterproofing is needed first of all?

Waterproofing

Before performing work, the first step is to determine what type of materials to use. They are mainly divided into two types. The first is the coating work, the second is the coating.

Lubricants

Liquid or pasty masses, applied with a roller or spatula to the insulated surface. They take some time to solidify. The positive aspects are undoubtedly the possibility of using them on uneven surfaces, excellent adhesion to the surface, and the relative ease of doing the job. Disadvantage – most of the coating materials will last long enough if you additionally make a filler screed on them.

For coating works on waterproofing, ordinary bitumen remains the most inexpensive option. However, take into account its short service life (3-5 years), as well as the need to heat it up to a temperature of 120 ° C before applying to the surface to be treated..

If you need to save money, you can also use special varnishes. They are applied in several layers and provide good moisture protection. However, the disadvantage is the same as that of bitumen – fragility. After 5-6 years, the waterproofing will need to be redone.

A much better, albeit more expensive, option would be to use more modern bitumen-based materials. This is bitumen-rubber or bitumen-polymer mastic. They are much more reliable, durable, and not capricious to the working conditions, up to subzero temperatures.

Cement-polymer mastics have the highest price and corresponding quality. They look great like molten plasticine. When processing surfaces, they remarkably seep into the smallest cracks, plugging holes and forming a reliable adhesion, and the content of polymers, silicone or acrylic dispersions in the base, guarantees the durability and effectiveness of these materials.

If hiring craftsmen is not the best way out for you, and you have chosen to waterproof the bathroom with your own hands, then do not forget that there is no single recipe for using coating mixtures, and carefully study the instructions for use. Also stock up on the necessary tools. Liquid mastics are applied with a roller or brush, thick mastics – with a trowel or spatula. If a thick mastic is used, then also stock up on a wide spatula to level the surface.

Processing begins from the corner, or from the seam joint. It is desirable to process all surfaces, but even if only the floor is processed, it is still necessary «climb» by 20-30 cm and on the walls. Do not forget about the pipes – seals should be put on them and also smeared with mastic.

Gluing materials

This is essentially the same bitumen, reinforced with polyester or fiberglass. Depending on the cost of such waterproofing, there are materials containing polymers and other additives. According to the method of application, they are divided into self-adhesive and guided. The former act like ordinary stickers, the protective film is removed, and the roll itself is rolled over the surface to be treated. The guided ones are mounted using a gas burner. The roll is laid out on the surface, processed with heat, then rolled out with a heavy roller.

The biggest advantage of pasting is its undeniable cost-effectiveness – no coating mixture will cost you as cheaply as a few rolls of ready-made waterproofing. An additional advantage is the speed of installation, plus there is no need to wait until the treated surface is ready to take on the next stage of repair work..

The negative aspects include, first of all, the unpleasant and persistent smell of the bitumen itself. The need for careful surface preparation is also important – a perfectly flat and dry base is required for laying rolls. It should also be remembered that inaccuracies in the execution can negate all the efforts expended, therefore the gluing of the waterproofing panels should be done with the utmost accuracy..

The main stages of waterproofing work

First of all, it is necessary to carry out preparatory work. These include:

  • Surface preparation. It is necessary to clean the processed base from debris and dust as thoroughly as possible. If the height differences are more than 2 mm, it is necessary to make a leveling screed.
  • If concrete, plaster is insulated, as well as when using a cement screed, the surface must be moistened. This is done due to the porous structure of these materials in order to avoid premature drying of the solution..
  • Base primer. This is a mandatory procedure, which significantly increases the quality of adhesion of waterproofing to the treated surface..
  • Bonding of moisture-permeable joints with reinforcing tape. Pay attention to gaps between walls and floors, between floors and plumbing fixtures, etc..

After completing all of the above preparatory work, proceed directly to the application of waterproofing, according to the recommendations for the specific material used.

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