Before starting work, we recommend that you familiarize yourself with the preparation for gluing wallpaper (marking, cutting, combining a picture and other interesting points). Today, there are many wall claddings available. The most popular are wallpapers that primarily serve aesthetic functions. They have been used by people from ancient times, only in different countries their different types were widely used. For example, in Europe, they began to decorate the walls with fabric. From there came the fabric wallpaper, which is now so often used. China, Japan and other eastern countries gave rise to paper wallpapers. In part, they have some kind of reflection of these powers. The East, first of all, is famous for its habits of frequent changes in mood or environment. Like wallpaper, which means it is updated most frequently. Muslims were the first to use leather wall covering.
Choosing the right wallpaper
The process of wallpapering walls begins with the selection of suitable ones. After all, all of them have certain characteristics that help us determine which of them is the best (at least for us). There are so many wallpaper manufacturers out there today. And they provide us with a huge choice. You can paste them over all the rooms of the house, despite the humidity or possible contamination. In order not to get confused in such a great variety, you need to understand the types and types of wallpaper..
Types of wallpaper:
Paper ones. The most common wallpaper in the world. They have many advantages, but some disadvantages also appear. First of all, people like the low cost of paper wallpaper. This allows you to more often change or update the interior of the rooms. Their price depends on the type of paper used, taken as a basis, and can fluctuate in a very wide range, which allows them to be purchased by more people. They are considered environmentally friendly. They have high moisture and air permeability, which has a positive effect on the walls, allowing them to breathe. Paper wallpaper «obedient» when gluing.
The following disadvantages of paper wallpaper can be distinguished – they are most susceptible to mechanical damage. These types of wall coverings are afraid of moisture and absorb odors; therefore, it is not advisable to use them in a bathroom or kitchen. They lend themselves to rapid fading or contamination, and, consequently, to the loss of attractiveness. They cannot be washed, mostly.
To overcome some of the disadvantages of paper wallpapers, two-layer or duplex paper wallpapers have been produced. They are more durable, less prone to contamination or fading, and less air and moisture permeability. Some of them can even be washed. All this, of course, affects the price of paper wallpaper..
Vinyl. A fairly common type of wall covering. Its main advantage is its beautiful appearance and moisture resistance, which allows them to be washed. The basis for vinyl wallpaper is paper or non-woven. The top layer is coated with polyvinyl chloride (PVC). A variety of patterns or embossing can be applied to it. Thanks to vinyl, these wallpapers become stronger and more resistant to moisture or sunlight. They don’t attract dirt and dust that much..
Among the disadvantages of vinyl wallpaper is its poor permeability. The PVC film does not allow air and moisture to pass through, which prevents the walls from breathing. They are not versatile for wall applications. Each of their types must be approached individually. Some are durable and less capricious, some require careful pasting to prevent damage to the design, sprinkling of gloss or coating.
Vinyl wallpaper can be classified into three types based on manufacturing processes. They have a different look and different properties. The top layer can be foamed, flat or hard vinyl. The first group gives an unusual look to the walls. It turns out a relief coating. Such wallpapers will give uniqueness and hide many irregularities and imperfections on the walls. They are lightweight. Most of the foamed vinyl wallpaper is paintable..
On a flat vinyl wallpaper, the stencil is first applied to the backing. Then, it is covered with vinyl by embossing. Beautiful and flat wallpapers come out that imitate many textures – fabric, leather, gloss, ceramic tiles and others. Their distinctive feature is the increased strength due to the thickness of the vinyl ball. These wallpapers are often used in the kitchen or bathroom..
Wallpaper with hard vinyl has appeared quite recently. They are more environmentally friendly than others. Vinyl is heat treated, which ensures the evaporation of substances that are harmful to the human body. They are distinguished by increased air permeability, resistance to physical influences and mechanical damage, and the ability to not allow moisture to pass through. As you can see, they have depleted some of the incomparable, positive features. Such wallpapers are resistant to chemical detergents. They perfectly hide minor imperfections and irregularities on the walls..
Non-woven. The type of wallpaper, according to its characteristics, is similar to paper. Only they have increased strength. In appearance, this wallpaper is very soft and delicate. Non-woven material is a material made from natural ingredients. In terms of characteristics, it is similar to fabric, but it is not. Non-woven wallpaper is made of cellulose fibers with the addition of viscose and other additives to give the look of natural fabrics, strength and other useful properties. The walls are free «breathe» under this material.
Non-woven wallpaper is very convenient when gluing. No swelling, blistering or deformation occurs. A distinctive feature when using them is that they are attached to a wall pre-coated with glue. Moreover, they themselves remain dry. They can be applied to any surface. They perform well on wood, cement, slabs, plaster and other materials. It should be noted that when applying other layers to non-woven materials, such as vinyl, the wallpaper loses some of its properties. Can be painted (up to 3 times).
Glass fiber. They are based on the material obtained by the weaving method from fiberglass. Most often, such wallpapers are painted. They have different patterns and textures. One of the biggest advantages of glass fiber wallpaper is its increased fire resistance. They are often used to decorate emergency escape routes in case of fire. Glass fiber is not a medium for feeding various parasites (mites, fungus, mold, etc.). They have a very long service life (10-15 years, some even up to 30 years). They are not afraid of water or cleaning agents. They are characterized by high environmental friendliness and safety. They are less obedient when covering walls and require a lot of glue..
Textile wallpaper. They are based on paper or non-woven fabric. The top layer is fabric (linen, silk, velor, polyester and others). They can be natural or artificial, which determines the cost of textile wallpaper and some of their characteristics. They provide the greatest degree of sound and heat insulation. Most of them do not tolerate wet cleaning. This type of wallpaper is a very demanding material for gluing, which becomes a difficult and unpleasant process for inexperienced people..
Metallized. They, like vinyl, are based on paper or non-woven fabric. The top layer is a foil that can be patterned, patterned or embossed. People choose them because of their attractive appearance. They fill the room with a golden or silver glow. With good illumination of the room, you can see all the beauty and advantages of metallized wallpaper. They are also very easy to clean. They are easy to wash or wipe off. Metallized wallpaper is resistant to wear and tear. They do not lose their luster over time. And the sound insulation with them is simply excellent..
But also, you can highlight the disadvantages of metallized wallpaper. First of all, this is their high price. They are poorly permeable to air and moisture, which contributes to the accumulation of condensation. To glue them, you need a perfectly flat surface and special glue. All flaws will be visible, the foil will make them very noticeable.
Natural wallpaper. They are based on the same paper. To which a variety of natural materials are attached with the help of threads. This can be jute, reed, bamboo, wood cork, and many others. The first and main advantage of natural wallpaper is its environmental friendliness. Moreover, they have a wonderful view. Provide excellent heat and sound insulation.
Among the disadvantages of natural wallpaper, one can single out their high cost. Their gluing is quite complicated. Paper coated with natural materials is difficult to cut and adhere to. This type of wallpaper absorbs odor or dust quite well. They are flammable.
The liquid wallpaper. Quite an interesting option. They combine the positive properties of conventional wallpaper and plaster. They are a combination of natural fibers of different origins and glue. They have the following positive properties – when applied to the wall, there are no seams. They hide small irregularities in the walls, they can only be applied to certain areas. Liquid wallpaper is environmentally friendly.
The disadvantages of using liquid wallpaper are as follows – they are not resistant to moisture or mechanical damage. They need to be applied to the wall rather carefully, it is better to do this for professionals. Take a long time to dry (up to three days).
Well, if you have decided on the choice of wallpaper to decorate your walls, then you need to start pasting them. But don’t rush.
Step-by-step process of wallpapering walls
Depending on which wallpaper will be chosen for pasting on the walls, further steps will be determined. But most of the points remain the same for different types of coverage..
First, get yourself all the tools you need. They, of course, can be borrowed, but it’s still better to have your own. An approximate list of the necessary tools and accessories for wallpapering walls:
When all the materials and fixtures are ready for work, you should start preparing the walls. First you need to remove the old wallpaper. This can be done using a special solution, the main thing is not to forget to read the instructions for it. Or simply moisten the old wallpaper with warm water. And with a spatula or scraper, clean the wall. Possible irregularities or cracks must be filled with a putty. If necessary, use sandpaper to smooth the wall. If the walls succumbed to plastering, then you need to wait a little to allow the surface to dry.
After preparation, the surface should be primed. Very often, this process is neglected, but it is not worth doing. The primer is primarily made to reduce the absorption of the adhesive by the walls. This makes it possible to adjust the stripes of the wallpaper. That is, to customize the pattern or joints. Wallpaper glue can also be used as a primer. But, in this case, it must be diluted to a more liquid state. By the way, the primer protects your walls from the possible spread of various fungi or bacteria..
While the primer is absorbed into the adhesive surface, the wallpaper needs to be cut. Before this process, make sure that all rolls are from the same batch, as the tone or shade may differ even with the same color. If the wallpaper has a pattern, then it is necessary to mark with a pencil exactly where to trim them. Always leave a few centimeters of canvas free (lengthwise). It is worth considering the degree of displacement of the wallpaper. This can be found on the back of the canvas. Where the corresponding figure is accompanied by a number that says the offset step. But, as they say, trust, but verify. First try to combine all strips of wallpaper on the floor. After greasing the canvas with glue, you can start working. It is important not to confuse the upper and lower parts of the wallpaper..
Choosing the right glue
Did you know that choosing the right wallpaper adhesive is not easy. There are many things to consider here. In addition to the price and manufacturer, they have many characteristics that will affect the choice of the right.
If someone has already come across the choice of wallpaper glue, then he knows that the range of these substances is simply great. For vinyl, one box is intended, for natural – another. And no one ever wondered why there are so many of them and why not make one package for all occasions.?
All this is not so easy, because each type of glue is designed for different types of wallpaper. Some wall coverings are heavier, others less. For example, most types of glue are suitable for paper wallpaper. That is, you do not need to buy any special product for them. As they say, there is no need to overpay. Another thing is the non-woven base. The structure is already different. And vinyl wallpaper is too heavy for all-purpose adhesives. So it turns out that there is material that is cheaper, and there is also more expensive..
Another such interesting thing for inexperienced craftsmen. There is wallpaper glue with an indicator. If someone tried to lubricate the canvas, then you probably remember that it was not always visible which part had an adhesive applied and which did not. The indicator, on the other hand, is a kind of substance that, upon contact with water, makes the wallpaper glue colored. This is better seen when lubricating the strips. After a while, the coloring matter loses its color and becomes invisible..
If you go to specialty stores that sell wallpaper glue, you can see a kidney with the inscription «curb». It is thicker and has a higher drying rate. After all, the curbs are smaller than the wallpaper strips, and some of them are much heavier. Any glue comes in powder form. It is diluted with water according to the recipe, which is indicated on the pack. To avoid the formation of lumps, it is advised to pour the glue into the water slowly and stirring constantly. Usually the mixture needs to settle for half an hour. After that, it should be mixed again..
The final stage
Next comes the process of wallpapering the walls. It seemed that all the preparation was over and there was no need to be too nervous. This is not entirely true. When covering walls with wallpaper, you need to follow a few tips..
Glue the corners
The outer corner is glued as follows: cut off a strip of wallpaper 2.5 cm more than from the previous strip to the corner. Then it is necessary to glue the strip, while bending it at the opposite angle. If the corner is straight, the remainder is glued end-to-end, otherwise the remainder is glued with an overlap along the vertical markings. Now we take a sharp knife and pass it along the corner along the ruler, cutting off the cuttings and pressing the edges. By the way, vinyl wallpaper is glued only end-to-end..
Internal corner: first you need to know that you should not glue a whole wallpaper canvas on it, because it will most likely turn out to be crooked and you will get either deviations or dips. Now, before starting work, you need to measure the distance from the corner to the last strip and add 2 cm. Now, I know the required size, cut off the strip and glue it to the corner and the wall. In order for the paper in the corner to stick better, you need to hold it with a small object, for example, a blunt end from a knife. With dense wallpaper, the remaining piece must be glued using a plumb line with an overlap on the adjacent part of the wall. Now we take the knife and follow the ruler along the corner, remove the remnants and press the edges. This way the joint will be invisible..
If you listen to these tips, you will avoid many mistakes that you will have to fix later..