In the production of cement, lime is used, which is preliminarily slaked, refined clay and other additional materials, which together are heated to a certain temperature (up to 1450 degrees Celsius). Then the already obtained mixture is crushed to form a powder. Each type of powder has its own strength, and, accordingly, the cost, which differ from each other.
Types of cement, their quality and compositional characteristics:
- lime-slag – contains 30% lime and 5% gypsum;
- phosphate – in its composition they contain crushed oxides and phosphoric acid and other compounds that, in a certain combination with each other, produce phosphate solidification – solidifying at normal temperature and during heating to 573 K;
- finely ground (TMC) – Portland cement in combination with sand and mineral additives (perlite, limestone, slag, ash and volcanic materials);
- acid-resistant – mixtures with soluble glass, an aqueous solution of sodium silicate, acid-resistant fillers for hardening;
- mixed – the main substance in the composition is silicon oxide, plus additives: fired varieties of clay, all kinds of slags, ash substances, especially fuel, gypsum, expanded clay, sedimentary rocks, etc.;
- colored – white cement is mixed with pigment powder or dye, or clinker raw materials and chromium oxide, red lead or ocher are fired and ground together;
- special grouting – joint grinding of triethanolamine, gypsum and clinker;
- masonry – contains 20% Portland cement clinker, blast furnace slag in the form of granules, ash, quartz, limestone, marble and other mineral materials;
- waterproof nonshrinking (VBC) – aluminum oxide, limestone and bauxite are the main ingredients in the composition of such cement;
- slag-alkali – waste and slag of blast furnaces, together with alkalis, form a strong and well-hardening building material, which has been on the market for about 40 years and is still not inferior in breadth of application to other types of cement;
- Turkish – contains 59% SZ silicate and aluminate has unique aesthetic and operational properties of white cement, recently gaining more and more popularity;
- Chinese – Portland cement with mineralization and additives of various impurities (alumina, mineral, etc.);
- slag Portland cement – slags in combination with alkaline activators or anhydrite are fired according to a certain technology, it is very popular and widely used;
- sulfate-resistant – ordinary cement enriched with modifying additives, which give greater strength and strength to concrete products;
- expanding – its main property is to increase in volume during hardening in air due to certain hydraulic substances;
- pozzolanic – a mixture that is an astringent hydraulic substance that hardens when exposed to water or moisture;
- plasticized – a very plastic, but durable substance that has such properties due to specific additives that give the plastic mixture;
- sandy – cement clinker is mixed in grinding with gypsum, sand and quartz, autoclave hardening;
- stressing – a mixture that has hydraulic and expanding properties, is very resistant to corrosion, low temperatures and water;
- magnesia cement – the main substance of such cement is magnesium oxide, which is sealed with chlorides along with magnesium sulfates, is strong and moisture resistant;
- carbonate – made on the basis of clay or siderite carbonate rocks, plus 25-30% of limestone or dolomite;
- aluminous – limestone or any other substance with alumina is a very good binding material;
- hydrophobic – Portland cement with hydrophobic additives (asidol, mylonft, oleic acid, synthetic fatty acids or their residues and oxidized petrolatum) has high water and air tightness;
- waterproof expanding – a mixture made by grinding alumina cement with calcium and gypsum hydroaluminate, a pronounced volume increase when solidified;
- fast-hardening – due to the presence of a certain percentage of additives in such a cement, it has the highest rates of fast hardening;
- white – this color of the mixtures is obtained due to kaolin, a special rock of porcelain clay and chalk, which give the cement multifunctionality, because it can be mixed with dry paints, putties and plasters without losing, at the same time, its high strength properties;
- composite Portland cement – contains mineral additives that improve strength, frost and moisture resistance;
- white Portland cement – contains a high percentage of silicate and alumina substances, which significantly increases its performance and quality characteristics, such as strength and water resistance.
Some popular types of cement and their applications
Phosphate cement is used where resistance to elevated atmospheric temperatures or adhesion to various other materials is required. They successfully perform the protective role of various structures, including metal.
Finely ground cement (TMC) is used for the manufacture of concrete or reinforced concrete products, as well as monolithic structures. It perfectly tolerates the addition of binders, which further increases its strength, hardening, water resistance and other qualities.
Acid-resistant cement is used to protect chemical equipment from the influence of acid-containing drugs or substances. Has partial moisture resistance.
Mixed cements are most often used for the construction of underwater or underground structures, highways, sanitary and technical cabins are made of these materials..
Masonry cement is most suitable for plastering, tiling or masonry work. However, without fail, various additives and necessary components should be added to them..
As can be seen from the brief overview, there are a lot of types of cements, therefore, in order to make the necessary and correct choice of one or another material, one should always take into account first its direct purpose, and then, if possible, enrich or improve that other type of cement with various additives or additional mixtures. Another requirement for effective work with cement, the selection of a brand and variety, may be taking into account all the nuances that may arise during the future operation of the premises. This is moisture resistance, and temperature drops and acid resistance, and many others, which can significantly affect the quality of wear of a particular cement surface..