The invention of the first wallpaper, like paper, is credited to the Chinese. It is believed that they were in the 2nd century BC. got something that no modern man can do without. A little later, wallpapers were invented. The secret of their manufacture was passed on from father to son for a long time and was kept in the strictest confidence. Only in the 6th century AD did the representatives of the Japanese people reveal this secret to the rest of the world. By modernizing the production technology of this material, the Chinese began to make wallpaper from rice paper. They were patterned by hand. This process required a lot of time and effort, so only representatives of the upper class could purchase them..
Much later, in the 17th and 18th centuries, wallpaper was invented in Europe. The drawing on them was made using artificial silk threads. Such finishing materials were used to decorate the residences of the heads of state and their subjects. The invention of the wallpaper-making machine at the end of the 17th century greatly accelerated the wallpaper-making process. But it did not receive recognition in its time.
Some historians believe that wallpaper was invented during the time of the first ancient states: Assyria, Babylon, etc. Their prototype was the fabric, which was used to paste over the walls even before the invention of paper. Modern excavations partially confirm this theory. One way or another, but the progenitors of the considered finishing material are the developed states of antiquity. We still borrow many technologies of those times..
What are the wallpapers
Every year, fashion dictates its tendencies to us, which are perfectly visible in the species diversity of wallpapers. They are divided into:
Perhaps the most frequently used wallpaper. Their service life does not exceed 5 years. Reduces thermal conductivity and increases wall sound insulation. Poor durability and cannot be used in wet areas.
They appeared relatively recently. They have two layers: vinyl and paper. They are divided into:
- Heavy. Well masks the unevenness of the glued surface.
- Lungs. Easy to care for. Average service life is 15 years.
- Silkscreen. They are distinguished by their gloss and smooth surface. This type of wallpaper can often be found with imitation silk.
They are paper with a graphic image of something. Relatively not expensive. There is a possibility of making these wallpapers according to individual sizes..
Tufting – wallpaper
They are also carpet wallpaper, the surface of which is impregnated with pile. They are used for wall and ceiling decoration. Their inherent advantages are sound absorption and heat preservation..
They are made by impregnating a paper base with a thin sheet of foil. On the latter, a drawing or pattern is superimposed by mechanical processes. The top surface is easy to clean. To attach them to the wall surface, special glue is required..
They are based on the bark of a special oak (cork). They are made by pressing. A distinctive feature of these wallpapers are their antibacterial properties..
They are a combination of jute for upholstery and ordinary paper wallpaper. They do not need to upholstery the walls, as with jute draperies. It is enough to apply glue to their paper base and stick to a prepared wall surface.
Like many types of wallpaper, it has a paper base. Their difference lies in the fact that a special mass is applied to the outer surface, on which various kinds of patterns are later squeezed out. Due to their properties, they can be easily painted without deformation of the pattern..
It is a canvas made of paper pulp, threads or fabric. They have increased heat absorption, sound insulation, lightfastness. Available in a variety of colors and textures. Does not require adjustment of the canvas to the pattern.
On surfaces covered with such wallpaper, seams are not noticeable. Apply with a spray gun or roller. For their application, special paints are used. Comes in powder or liquid form.
They are based on specialized glass fibers. They are suitable for pasting the walls of allergy sufferers, they are not toxic. Suitable for gluing the mill in office premises, as they have a high level of fire safety and water resistance.
Wood veneer based
They have two layers: veneer and thick paper. Sold in the form of paintings.
Durable enough, they do not fade. They cannot be washed. Do not withstand all kinds of mechanical stress.
Wallpaper based on serpyanka
They are the youngest of the considered varieties of this finishing material. They are based on a cellulose web. High strength, not subject to stretching.
It should be noted that the wallpapers discussed above can be combined into several large groups. So, depending on the specifics of the glued premises, they are divided into:
Stages of pasting
No wonder they say: «How many people, so many opinions!» Each of us has our own rules for choosing tools, materials, as well as algorithms for carrying out this process. In this regard, let us dwell on the fundamental points of wallpapering:
At the very first stage of work, you should evaluate the surface of the walls. If it is even, without bumps and bumps, a special primer should be applied. Otherwise, it is necessary to level the walls either by yourself or by calling the necessary masters. After carrying out the work on applying the primer, it is necessary to wait for several days until it is absorbed and dries. Otherwise, all the work will be in vain.
Preparatory work on video
When choosing an adhesive, carefully read the instructions on the package. Remember that glue is subdivided into:
Pay attention to the packaging. The manufacturer sometimes indicates additional information: restrictions on the weight of wallpaper, their type, etc..
Pasting of walls. Perhaps the most comfortable wallpapers are those that are pre-saturated with glue. It is enough to moisten the back of the wallpaper with water and get to work. The situation is worse if you independently apply the adhesive mass on the seamy side of the wallpaper, since not many can boast of having the necessary skills in this work. If doubts about your abilities are visited more and more often, contact the professionals!
Wallpapering the walls is much easier than the ceiling. The bands are prepared for those and for other needs according to a similar algorithm. Glue the wallpaper as follows: straightening the upper end of the strip attached to the top line, while checking it so that it overlaps the adjacent strip. The overlap of strips is allowed by a maximum of 1 cm.
At the locations of switches and sockets, wallpaper must be glued as follows: remove the socket cover and glue them in the usual way. Cut out the contours of the outlet or switch after drying, then screw the cover back on. This work should only be carried out with the electricity disconnected, and a warning sign should be made on the main switch: «Caution, do not include!». How is wallpaper glued on various ledges, stands, niche? A part of the strip not greased with glue is applied to the section of the wall in order to determine its best position. In this case, they are guided by the saying «measure seven times, cut one».
If, nevertheless, it turns out that a mistake was made when marking the wallpaper, then you will have to add a piece of wallpaper in addition.In this case, remember that the upper part of the strip should always overlap the lower one. They should also overlap on the sides. If there are baseboards in the room, then they must be removed and wallpaper glued to the floor, and then the baseboards must be nailed..
If, when gluing the wallpaper, the canvas began to move away from the wall, then you should moisten it and, applying glue to the removed surface, glue it back. If the wallpaper is still wet, then they are simply additionally coated with glue and fixed in the required place.
If bubbles appear under the wallpaper, a clerical knife, a small tube of glue and a needle will help to eliminate them. The latter will be needed if the bubbles are small. It will be enough for her to pierce them and introduce a little glue there to attach to the wall surface. For large swells of the wallpaper, use a paper knife. Let’s draw them carefully a line through the center the resulting accumulation of air. Next, process the resulting cut with glue and fix the wallpaper in the desired position. It must be remembered that you should wait about a day or two for the glued sheet to dry completely and only then should the repair work be continued.
How to care for wallpaper
Dirt and stains are the most difficult to remove from paper wallpaper. This is largely due to the texture of the material itself. The painted surface does not have a protective layer, therefore other types of problems may arise when exposed to cleaning agents. These include: loss and change in color gamut, fading and much more, up to the formation of holes. With a strong desire, you can re-glue the wallpaper, this is not a big problem at the present time. An alternative way is decorating. With the help of various kinds of applications, you can create a unique interior design, and the stains will remain in their place as an integral part of it. The surface of paper wallpaper can be protected with synthetic varnish.
In the case of vinyl wallpaper, you can try to save it, as it is washable. First, you need to take a similar wallpaper from the store and check the cleaning chemicals on it. Washable wallpaper is made of a material covered with a thin layer of PVC film. Depending on their structural characteristics, they can be washed with a sponge, brush and detergents..
Only dry processing is applied to textile wallpaper. It includes cleaning with a soft brush or vacuum cleaner. Small stains can be removed with a damp sponge or any other soft cloth. Remember that they should not be wet, but only soaked. Effort is not recommended.
Liquid wallpaper (for example, compositions from natural cotton and cellulose fibers) must be looked after with a vacuum cleaner and a mixed cloth, preferably slightly damp.
Resistance of wallpaper for painting to wet cleaning – vinyl, paper, non-woven, fiberglass – often depends on the quality of the coated paint.
Remember, organic solvents are strictly prohibited, and for any type of wallpaper!